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String Formatting in Python

Key rings on a string

ARTICLE SUMMARY

In this guide to string formatting in Python, Indhumathy Chelliah shares the different techniques available for formatting outputs.

There are a number of different ways to format output in Python. Let’s learn about those formatting techniques in this article.

    Using string concatenation 

    Example 1: 

    By using string concatenation, we have to take care of spaces also. We are concatenating the output using + operator. 

    string formatting

     Example 2: 

    If we miss the spaces, the output is not displayed as we would expect. This is one of the drawbacks with this. 

    string formatting

    Using str.format() method 

    In str.format(), we can use {} to indicate where variable to be substituted. 

    Example 1: 

    In the below example, in the first curly brackets, the first variable ‘mango’ will be substituted and in the second curly brackets, ‘green’ will be substituted. 

    string formatting

    Example 2: 

    If we mention numbers in the curly brackets, it is used to refer to the position of the object passed to the str.format() method. 

    string formatting

    Example 3: 

    In str.format(), we can also pass the method to access the dictionary values. 

    Dictionary values can be accessed by d[key] or d.get(key) 

    string formatting

    Example 4:  

    We can mention the format specifier inside the curly brackets. It allows us to control the formatting of the values. 

    Like if we mention {:,.2f} →It indicates two decimal places. The values will be rounded to two decimal places. 

    string formatting

    Using formatted string literals (f-strings) 

    When we use f string formatting, we have to include ‘f’ before the opening quotation mark. 

    Here, we can mention expressions inside the curly brackets which will refer to variables or literal values. 

    Example 1: 

    In this example, variables are included inside the curly brackets. 

    string formatting

    Example 2: 

    In this example, a method to access dictionary values is given inside the curly brackets. 

    string formatting

    Example 3: 

    Inside the curly brackets, we can mention the string methods too. It will get evaluated and correct results will be displayed. 

    string formatting

    Example 4: 

    In this example, the expression is given inside the curly brackets {a*2}. The value of a is doubled and then the output is displayed. 

    string formatting

    Example 5: 

    Similarly, formatting the values can also be done. Here, in this example, we round off to two decimal places. 

    string formatting

    Only in the f string formatting can we include expressions. 

    Conclusion: 

    In this article, we have explored the different ways to format the output. I hope you all liked it. Thanks for reading! 

    string formatting

    AUTHOR: 

    Indhumathy Chelliah – SheCanCode Blog Squad

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